There are many reasons to have tests performed in a health evaluation for specific or general antibodies, also known as antigens found in the blood. This subject can be confusing. However, the fundamentals are simple.
The number of antibodies present in blood samples is determined and then expressed in either the term titer (or concentration) or as complete units on a molecular or average scale… The levels of antibodies increase in blood samples when you’ve been subjected to an antigen (that could be a threat from an invader or something the body believes could be foreign). The antibodies fight and eliminate foreign substances or create harm if the object of the attack is your body tissues.
The result of the antibody titer test could answer several questions dependent on the clinical situation:
The power of an immune response to the body’s tissues in situations where the body fights itself is also known as autoimmune diseases. It is necessary to inject a booster after an immunization program. The previous vaccination course has helped your immune system protect you from the disease in question. To determine if you suffer from a current active disease caused by a particular organism. Check if you’ve previously suffered from an infection caused by a specific organism.
What is a normal range is determined by the antibody being tested.
When the tests are conducted to determine antibodies directed at your body, the standard value is likely to be below. When the tests are conducted to determine whether an immunization plan is working, the number of antibodies is expected to be more significant – showing that protection is in place to stop an organism from invading your body. Looking for signs of infection by specific bacteria, negative Antibody tests can be used to rule out particular diseases. In contrast, a rise in antibodies could indicate a condition – either in the past or present.
DIFFERENT classes of anti-bodies
There are various types within every group of antibodies that provide protection (or possible destruction of the body’s tissues). Knowing the antibody type will help distinguish between past or present infection and active or silent illness.
If you are requesting tests for specific viruses, the lab must know the question to be addressed. In general terms, it is a matter of possible infections at a reasonable time, or a question of immunity, or is there an autoimmune condition or not?
Testing for INFECTION
Through Healthscreening.co.uk, dozens of tests of viral or bacterial activity are available. Don’t worry if you’re not entirely sure of the test you’d like to have assessed – we’re here to assist. We must understand the question to be addressed. You also inform us of any pertinent background information, except if you’ve done your research and know the exact test or tests you want to buy. It is crucial to be aware that not all infections can show results immediately, and the results will differ between species and tests used. If you’re not sure and want to know more, contact us. The antibodies may take a long to reveal their presence in blood to give you an idea. Therefore, PCR testing might be needed if there is an urgent need. This kind of test will detect that there is a viral infection within the blood within a few days of any infection.
Tests that are frequently requested for active infections include:
Hepatitis B-related status A specific test of different classes of antibodies, either antigen or virus (viral load), can determine if the patient has an illness and if it is the length of time it has been in existence. Tests can also distinguish between those who carry the disease or are more susceptible to complications.
Hepatitis C condition It is possible to identify active infection by measuring antibody response, antigen present, and the amount of viral load.
HIV state Antibody or viral tests are accessible. The most up-to-date PCR tests are used to provide solid results in the weeks following testing. Antibodies could take as long as six months to be detected. However, they are detectable.
Herpes Simplex Type I and II Testing for antibodies, or the most up-to-date testing with PCR, is available.
Lyme Disease (Borrelia) – antibody testing
Epstein Barr virus infection – antibody testing
Many more diseases are screened for, including many tropical organisms.
Testing for IMMUNITY
You might want to find out whether you’ve been exposed previously to a pathogen that can cause disease. If you have, you may be protected from its side effects shortly. It could be required for reasons of work or to determine whether your unborn child is susceptible to contracting an illness that you may be exposed to during pregnancy. There are many tests to determine your immunity available on our sites. Some of the most frequently tested tests include:
Hepatitis B status – typically checked to confirm that the virus’s anti-virus course is effective.
Rubella (German measles)
As always, if you need assistance to determine what is the best test for you, contact us.
Testing for Autoantibodies
The screening of autoantibodies is usually demanded when an autoimmune disorder is suspected or simply has to be confirmed. Autoimmune illnesses are caused by the body’s production of antibodies against its tissues, which in turn attack itself. Every organ or tissue can be affected. The thyroid gland, joint surfaces, and the liver are just a few examples of the places that could be affected. The evident signs are usually detected in blood samples, and the selection of antibody testing is defined by signs or symptoms.
The conditions that can be identified through autoantibody tests include Hashimoto’s and Grave’s Disease (thyroid), Rheumatoid arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE), and numerous others.
Autoantibody test thyroid peroxidase antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, mitochondrial antibodies, and smooth muscle antibodies. Gastric parietal cells antibodies. Reticulin antibodies Anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody
The Connective Tissue Disorder Test – antinuclear antibodies, anti-ds DNA antibodies that can extract nuclear antigens and rheumatoid factor, and anti-CCP antibodies (plus additional tests, such as CRP)
Sjogren’s syndrome Anti RO (SSA) and anti-La (SS-B), and salivary drainage antibodies
If you are unsure, seek out the clinical team for advice on the best tests for your specific symptoms or concerns.
There is no perfect test – and testing for antibodies isn’t free of problems. False-positive results are often encountered in the testing of autoantibodies, specifically the case of weakly positive results for antinuclear antibodies, as an example is not uncommon for healthy people.
The high sensitivity of the antinuclear antibodies (ANA) test makes it an extremely useful screening test for the diagnosis of systemic lupus particularly. Since the majority of people (more than 90% of people) affected by lupus will be positive and negative, an unfavorable ANA test is helpful in determining whether the condition is present. But, only about 10% of the people who have a positive ANA test are diagnosed with lupus. More suffer from another autoimmune disease, and about 15% of healthy people test positive for an ANA test. So the positive ANA test doesn’t immediately mean a diagnosis of lupus or any other autoimmune disorder.